Amritsar is a city in the northwestern Indian state of Punjab, 28 kilometers from the border with Pakistan. At the center of its walled old town, the gilded Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) is the holiest gurdwara (religious complex) of the Sikh religion. It’s at the end of a causeway, surrounded by the sacred Amrit Sarovar tank (lake), where pilgrims bathe.
Sports & nature
Amritsar is located at 31.63°N 74.87°E with an average elevation of 234 metres (768 ft).
Amritsar has a semiarid climate, typical of Northwestern India and experiences four seasons primarily: winter season (December to March) with temperature ranges from 0 °C (32 °F) to about 15 °C (59 °F), summer season (April to June) where temperatures can reach 42 °C (108 °F), monsoon season (July to September) and post monsoon season (October to November). Annual rainfall is about 681 millimetres (26.8 in). The lowest recorded temperature is 3.6 °C (25.5 °F), was recorded on 9 December 1996 and the highest temperature, 48.1 °C (118.6 °F), was recorded on 22 May 2013.
Jallianwala Bagh is the site of one of the most monstrous massacres in human history and a dark event during the Indian independence struggle. Also known as Amritsar massacre, as many as 1100 peaceful protesters were killed when British troops opened fire on April 13, 1919 at this place. The brutal murder of thousands added fuel to the fight against the British and raised severe questions about the British intentions to rule India in a humane way. Today, the park has been converted into a memorial who sacrificed their lives.
On April 13, 1919, 20,000 people comprising Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs had gathered at the Jallianwala Bagh in answer to Mahatma Gandhi’s call for public non-violent protest against the Rowlatt Act. The Act indefinitely extended “emergency measures” to control public unrest and root out conspiracy and allowed police to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for two years without trial. Acting on the assumption that a conspiracy was being planned to overthrow the British rule, Brigadier Gen Reginald Dyer marched to the spot with a platoon of 50 soldiers and an armoured car. The roads to the park being narrow, Gen Dyer had to leave behind the armoured car. On reaching the park, the British general opened fire at the peaceful protesters without warning or asking them to disperse.
As many as 1600 rounds were fired and the firing stopped only when the British ran out of ammunition. Many people jumped into the well in the park to escape the bullets. Though official records put the number of fatalities at 379 and injured at 1,100, the numbers were widely believed to be more. Even the British civil surgeon, Dr Williams DeeMeddy, put the numbers at 1,000 fatalities and 1,526 injured. Shaken by the brutality of the incident, the British instituted the Hunter Commission which found Dyer guilty of mistaken notion of duty and was relieved of his command and prematurely retired.
Post Indian independence, the park was turned into a memorial to the people who sacrificed their lives. A memorial designed by American architect Benjamin Polk now stands at the site. The memorial was inaugurated by Dr Rajendra Prasad on April 13, 1961. Jallianwala Bagh is open to public on all days. But the memorial is open between 6 am and 9 pm in summers and 7 am-8 pm in winters.
You can see the Martyr’s well, the well into which people jumped to escape the bullets. It has been preserved inside the park and stands as a reminder of the horrific event that occurred here. You can also see Bullet holes on the wall within the Jallianwala Bagh. The Golden Temple is located at a stone’s throw away from Jallianwala Bagh.
Ram Bagh is a garden within the summer palace of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which has now been converted into a museum. Renowned as one of the best gardens in Punjab, this park is intersected by water channels fitted with fountains and golden fish. Coniferous trees and herbal plants that rarely found in plains are scattered across the garden.
At the end of the garden, there is a statue of Maharaja Ranjit Singh saddled on a horse in a winsome posture. Maharaja Ranjit Singh named this garden after Guru Ram Das, the founder of the city of Amritsar.
Harike Wetland and Bird Sanctuary
‘Lying at the confluence of Beas and Sutlej, it welcomes visitors from Siberia and the Arctic.’
Harike Wetland is the largest wetland in northern India and is located in the Tarn Taran Sahib district of Punjab. The popular Harike Lake lies deep within the park. This man-made wetland was created as a result of the diversion constructed across the Sutlej River in 1953 and therefore stands at the confluence of Beas and Sutlej rivers. It occupies an area of 4100 hectares and spreads into three districts of Punjab namely Amritsar, Ferozepur and Kapurthala. It is also a water source for the Indira Gandhi Canal, situated in Rajasthan. The rich biodiversity (particularly birds) of this wetland helps in maintaining the ecological as well as ecological balance and attracts a large number of tourists. The Harike Wetland also known as Hari-ke-pattan is a famous destination for bird watchers. There are many more local attractions for visitors as it is supposedly only an hour away from the city of Amritsar.
Kaiser Bagh Park
Also called as the Ceaser's Park, Kaiser Bagh is the most exciting place of Amritsar. The garden is a quadrangular shaped park that features a pavilion, flanked by yellow painted forms on the three sides. The architectural style of this garden is an amalgam of Gothic and Mughal style. The most favorite part of the place among the tourist is its entrance. The entrance has a flight of stairs that lead to the main floor. The first floor has a small temple which is similar to a bridge.
Although devoid of bars and clubs, the nightlife in Amritsar is quite lively nonetheless and offers a truly unique and intriguing experience. A visit to the Golden Temple at night is must when it is beautifully lit up. It is also a real treat for photographers wanting to capture the striking Golden Temple in all its glory. The reflection of the Golden Temple on the sarovar too is quite a sight. Also, the fascinating streets of Amritsar brimming with restaurants, cafes and roadside eateries make for an interesting night out.
8 G.T Road, Model Town, Amritsar, Punjan 143001, IndiaPhone: 0183 5069991
Sky Lounge is a nightlife pub/bar,This is the first and the only Sky Lounge in the City which is located on the 5th floor and over looking the hotel pool. For a healthy snack after an energetic workout or just relaxing and taking in the view , the Sky Lounge is an exclusive venue for in-house guests and Private parties. This is located in the Amritsar.
CAFE IN AMRITSAR
Café Coffee Day
An air-conditioned oasis with fresh coffee, this chain cafe is conveniently located within shouting distance from the Golden Temple area. There's tasty cakes, puffs, wraps and street-view seating to go with your lat…
BAR IN AMRITSAR
Bottoms Up Pub
The congenial bar at the Grand Hotel serves icy cold, glycerine-free, draught Kingfisher beer and some tasty meals from the hotel's common kitchen.
Culture and history info
Amritsar is one of the largest cities of the Punjab state of India. The city origin lies in the village of Tung, and was named after the lake founded by the fourth Sikh Guru Ram Das in 1574 on land bought by him for 700 rupees from the owners of the village of Tung. Earlier, Guru Ram Das had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near the village of Sultanwind in 1564 (according to one source in 1570). It could not be completed before 1588. In 1574, Guru Ram Das built his residence and moved to this place. At that time, it was known as Guru Da Chakk. (Later, it came to be known as Chakk Ram Das.)
Amritsar's central walled city has narrow streets mostly developed in the 17th and 18th century. The city is a peculiar example of an introverted planning system with unique areas called Katras. The Katras are self-styled residential units that provided unique defence system during attacks on the city.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises
The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, involving the killings of hundreds of Indian civilians on the orders of a senior British military officer, Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, took place on 13 April 1919 in the heart of Amritsar, the holiest city of the Sikhs, on a day sacred to them as the birth anniversary of the Khalsa (Vaisakhi day).
Partition of 1947
Main article: Partition of British India
Partition of British India into India and Pakistan had a most profound effect on the demographics, economics, culture, political and social structures of Amritsar. The state of Punjab was divided between India and Pakistan and Amritsar became a border city, often on the front lines of India-Pakistan wars. Prior to partition, the Muslim league wanted to incorporate Amritsar into Pakistan because of the Amritsar's proximity to Lahore (a distance of 30 miles) and a nearly 50% Muslim population, but the city became part of India.
Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star (1 – 6 June 1984) was an Indian military operation ordered by Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of Indiato curb and remove Sikh militants from the Golden Temple in Amritsar. The operation was carried out by Indian army troops with tanks and armoured vehicles. Militarily successful, the operation aroused immense controversy, and the government's justification for the timing and style of the attack are hotly debated.Operation Blue Star was included in the Top 10 Political Disgraces by India Today magazine.
Amritsar is Known for its Arts and Culture. Amritsar has always occupied the center stage in the Majha region and been aptly named as the Mukut Mani, the Jewel in the Crown.The Cultural Hub, Amritsar, has immensely contributed to the Punjabi literature and folk culture.