Chittorgarh (also Chittor or Chittaurgarh) is a major city in Rajasthan state of western India. It lies on the Berach River, a tributary of the Banas, and is the administrative headquarters of Chittorgarh District and a former capital of the Sisodia Rajput Dynasty of Mewar. The city of Chittaurgarh is located on the banks of river Gambhiri and Berach.
Chittorgarh is home to the Chittor Fort, the largest fort in India and Asia. It was the site of three major sieges (1303, 1535, and 1567-1568), by Muslim invaders, and its Hindu rulers fought fiercely to maintain their independence. On more than one occasion, when faced with a certain defeat, the men fought to death while the women committed suicide by jauhar (mass self-immolation). Chittor also has been a land of worship for Meera, It is also known for Panna Dai.
Culture and history info
Originally called Chitrakuta, the Chittor Fort is said to have been built by Chitranga, a king of the maurya ( mori ) clan .
The Guhila (Gahlot) ruler Bappa Rawal is said to have captured the fort in either 728 CE or 734 CE. However, some historians doubt the historicity of this legend, arguing that the Guhilas did not control Chittor before the reign of the later ruler Allata.
In 1303, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khilji defeated the Guhila king Ratnasingh and captured the fort. The fort was later captured by Hammir Singh, a king of the Sisodia branch of the Guhilas. Chittor gained prominence during the period of his successors, which included Rana Kumbha and Rana Sanga. In 1535, Bahadur Shah of Gujarat besieged and conquered the fort. After he was driven away by the Mughal emperor Humayun, the fort was given back to Sisodias by him.
In 1567–68, the Mughal emperor Akbar besieged and captured the fort and it was under Mughal control until the British Indian Empire.